Study Guide

We present a study guide for Visual, Optical, and Technical Perspective.

The subject of perspective is vast and complex, consisting of large numbers of visual plus written works that date back to antiquity. Our focus shall be on helping the serious researcher become familiar with influential perspective publications. 

Currently, the study guide provides general reading list(s) on perspective. However, as time allows, we shall expand help for the budding perspectivist to include guided reading on particular sub-topics.

Curated Reading

We shall not list, discuss or explain, everything written on the subject of perspective (see our Bibliography of Perspective). Instead, a carefully curated list of influential works on perspective is provided. Emphasis is placed on texts written in English (or available in English translation), but important non-English texts are included.

Access to an Academic Library is assumed (national library, university library etc). However only some have access to an Academic Library, therefore we are developing self-contained courses on perspective at a variety of levels. 

A printable copy is here: Perspective_Study_Guide (1 MB pdf).

Reading Lists

Key Books / Articles

Listed below is a selection of the very best books / articles for the beginning and advanced perspectivist.

Call No.AuthorTitleDate(s)Description
1Alison ColePerspective – A Visual Guide to the Theory and Techniques1992An excellent text on perspective for the beginner. This book provides a nice visual guide to the history of perspective at a level that can be understood by readers of all ages, including school children. Beginner students.
2B.A.R. CarterPerspective1970Perhaps the best introductory article on Graphical or Linear Perspective is by Professor B.A.R. Carter (Professor of Perspective at the Royal Academy), in The Oxford Companion to Art, edited by H. Osborne (1970). Beginner students.
3Lawrence WrightPerspective in Perspective1983Perhaps the best introductory book on the history and methods of perspective, which neatly summarises/explains the subject in terms of basic features such as the object/scene, eye, picture plane, perspective window, Illusions, etc. Also discusses applications in Art, topography, architecture, landscapes, optics, photography, cinema, etc. Beginner students.
4Leonard GoldsteinThe Social and Cultural Roots of Linear Perspective1988This book contains an excellent explanation of the role that perspective has played in the progress of art, science, technology, etc. Beginner students.
5John WhiteThe Birth and Rebirth of Pictorial Space1967An important book on the historical origins of perspective. Advanced students. 
6Lewis B. AndrewsA Space of Time: Continuous Narrative and Linear Perspective in Quattrocento Tuscan Art1988Perhaps an overly academic book for some; but this is a classic. This is not available as a published book, but is a Ph.D. thesis from Columbia University, Manhattan, New York, USA; contact them to get a copy. Advanced Students.
7Martin KempThe Science of Art. Optical Themes in Western Art from Brunelleschi to Seurat1992Large format book that provides an overview of the techniques and applications of Linear Perspective within western art and science. Beginner students.
8Fred Dubery and John WillatsDrawing Systems1972A small-format book that provides a useful summary of the main drawing systems (Graphical, Geometrical Perspective). Beginner students.
9Fred Dubery and John WillatsPerspective and Other Drawing Systems1972, 1983A medium-format book that provides a useful summary of perspective (Graphical, Geometrical Perspective). Beginner students.
10Craig AtteberyThe Complete Guide to Perspective Drawing2018An illustrated book that provides a step-by-step guide for the beginner as well as the advanced student on how to draw in one-point through six-point perspective (all classes). Beginner students.
11Earst GombrichArt and Illusion1960An excellent book providing a comprehensive introduction to visual topics that relate to Natural (Environment, Visual) and Graphical Perspective including representation (drawing, painting, etc) and within the field of art. Beginner students.
12Ernest NorlingPerspective Made Easy1967Introduction to Graphical / Geometrical Perspective. Advanced students.
13John RaynesA Complete Guide to Perspective2005Overview of Graphical / Geometrical Perspective. Advanced students.
14Rex ColePerspective: The Practice and Theory of Perspective as Applied to Pictures with a Section Dealing with its Application to Architecture1941Excellent and detailed explanation of Graphical Perspective / Geometrical Perspective. Advanced students.
15Rex ColePerspective for Artists: The Practice and Theory of Perspective as Applied to Pictures with a Section Dealing with its Application to Architecture1976 Modern copy of above book (slightly different title). Details of Graphical Perspective / Geometrical Perspective. Advanced students.
16Michael E. HelmsPerspective Drawing, A Step-By-Step Handbook1990Guide to Graphical Perspective / Geometrical Perspective. Advanced students.
17Robert GillPerspective from Basic to Creative2006Useful guide to Graphical Perspective / Geometrical Perspective with occasional inaccuracies. Advanced students.
18Willy BartschiLinear Perspective, Its History, Directions for Construction and Aspects in the Environment and in the Fine Arts Fantastic text on Visual, Optical, Technical Perspective; specifically Graphical, Geometrical and Linear Perspective. An elegant “circle of view” approach to the problems inherent to representation using perspective methods. Contains fantastic diagrams that provide the clearest possible illustrations of the principles and origins of Geometrical Perspective. The best book on Technical Perspective that is currently available. Advanced students.
19Willy BartschiPerspektive geschichte, konstruktionsanleitung, und erscheinungformen in umwelt und bildender kunst1976German edition of above text. Advanced students.
20G. Ten DoesschatePerspective: Fundamentals, Controversials, History1964Classic text known as the ‘Bible’ of Technical Perspective. Advanced students.
21David ChelseaExtreme Perspective! For Artists (Book and DVD): Learn the Secrets of Curvilinear, Cylindrical, Fisheye, Isometric and other Amazing Drawing Systems that Will Make Your Drawings Pop off the Page.2011Excellent overview of ‘Extreme’ Perspective, or the different kinds of Graphical / Geometrical Perspective that provide exceptionally deep views/images or wide-field views/images of optical space. Beginner students.
22Ernest W. WatsonHow to Use Creative Perspective1955Contains excellent graphical explanations of how to make accurate perspective drawings. Beginner students.
23P. J. BookerA History of Engineering Drawing1979Superb technical explanation of the history of Graphical and Geometrical Perspective. Beginner students.
24Nigel V. Walters, John BromhamPrinciples of Perspective1970Technical explanation of the principles of Graphical and Geometrical Perspective. Beginner students.
25Le Goff, Jean-PierreLes cahiers de la perspective points de vue: points of view notebooks of perspective; Publisher: IREM de basse Normandie; Volumes 1 (210 pp), 2-3 (317 pp), and 4 (207 pp).1981 – 1987Amazing collection of detailed articles / papers on perspective which have been gathered together by IREM de BASSE-NORMANDIE for a comprehensive series of lectures on Visual, Optical and Technical Perspective. Articles have many authors. Advanced students. We have seen references to further volumes in this series, for example volume 7.

Volumes are in french; but note that the PRC is arranging for a full translation of these books to be placed on the PRC website.
26Marisa Dalai EmilianiLa Prospettiva Rinaschimentale: Codificazioni E Trasgressioni: The Renaissance Perspective: Codifications and Transgressions.1980Collection of papers from the first World Perspective Conference. Beginner and advanced students.
27Albert Flocon, Andre BarreCurvilinear Perspective: From Visual Space to the Constructed Image1987The standard work on Curvilinear Perspective. Beginner and advanced students.
28Kim VeltmanStudies on Leonardo da Vinci 1: Linear Perspective, Visual Dimensions of Science and Art.1986Historical study of Leonardo and Perspective. Advanced students.
29M. D. VernonThe Psychology of Perception1973Classic study of visual perception (physiological optics). Beginner students.
30M. D. VernonExperiments in Visual Perception1966Study of visual perception (physiological optics). Beginner students.
31R.L. GregoryEye and Brain1998Study of seeing (physiological optics). Beginner students.
32R.L. GregoryThe Intelligent Eye1971Study of human vision (physiological optics). Beginner students.
33Sir Stewart Duke-ElderSystem of Ophthalmology: Volume1: The Eye in Evolution. 1958Classic work on the eye (human and animal). Beginner and advanced students.
34R.A. WealeThe Vertebrate Eye (monograph paper)1978Classic paper describing working principles of human eye. Beginner and advanced students.
35James P.C. SouthallHelmholtz’s Treatise on Physiological Optics1962Absolute classic text on physiological optics and the human eye. Beginner and advanced students.
36George Smith and David A. AtchisonOptics of the Human Eye2000Important book on visual optics. Beginner and advanced students.
37David D. MichaelsVisual Optics and Refraction1980Book on visual optics. Beginner students.
38M.H. FreemanOptics1990Classic book on optics and the human eye. Beginner students.
39Helmut GernsheinThe Origins of Photography1982Classic work on the origins of the photographic process. Beginner students.
40Ian P. Howard and Brian J. RogersBinocular Vision and Stereopsis1995The classic work on binocular vision. Advanced students.
Table A: List of publications on perspective and related topics ( including eye/vision).

Perspective History

Titles on the history of perspective.

Richter, G.M.A.Perspective in Greek and Roman Art1970An excellent study of the nature of three-dimensional representation or perspective in Greek and Roman art.
Martin KempGeometrical Perspective from Brunellesci to Desargues.1984History of perspective.
Rudolf ArnheimBrunalleschi’s Peepshow.1978Classic paper on the history of perspective.
Kubovy, M.The Psychology of Perspective and Renaissance Art1986Concerns the invention of perspective (Linear Perspective) in Renaissance Italy.
Miriam Schild BunimSpace in Medieval Painting and the Forerunners of Perspective1970History of perspective.
John NorthThe Astrolabe, a paper from Scientific American, New York, Vol. 230., Nr.1, January 1974, pp.96-101.1974Basic shapes, projections and representation in the late Middle Ages
Rocco SinsigallliPerspective in the Visual Culture of Classical Antiquity2012An interesting examination of optics and perspective from ancient times.
James ElkinsThe Poetics of Perspective1994History of perspective.
William M. IvinsArt and Geometry1946History of perspective.
William M. IvinsOn the Rationalisation of Sight1988Role of perspective in Western thought.
Kim VeltmanPtolemy and the Origins of Perspective. Paper.1980Origins of perspective.
Thomas da Costa KauffmanThe perspective of shadows: the history of the theory of shadow projection,  paper from the Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes. 38. 1975.1975Perspective of outlines and shadow projection
Leonardo da VinciA Treatise On Painting1651Perspective in art.
Peter Jeffrey BookerA History of Engineering Drawing1979History of technical drawing.
H. H. ArnasonA History of Modern Art, London: Thames and Hudson, 1969.1969Perspective and art history.
Gregory, R.L.Illusion in Nature and Art (2 volumes)1998Summary of visual illusions.
J.O. RobinsonThe Psychology of Visual Illusions1972Visual perspective: illusions
Helmut GernsheimThe Origins of Photography1982History of photography.
Jac Remise, et al.Magie Lumineuse: du theatre d’ombres a la lanterne maqique1979History of Magic Lanterns.
Ralph HydePanorama! The Art and Entertainment of the ‘All-Embracing’ View1988History of Panorama.
Abelardo MorellCamera Obscura2004Photographs from Camera Obscura.
John H. HammondThe Camera Obscura: A Chronacle1981History of Camera Obscura.
John H. HammondThe Camera Lucidia in Art and Science1987History of Camera Lucidia.
Albert HoffmanDas Stereosskop 1990History of Stereoscopes.
Celestine DarsImages of Deception: The Art of Trompe-L’Oeil1979History of Trompe-L’Oeil
J.B.DeregowskiDistortion in Art: The Eye and Mind1984History of Distortion in Art.
Jurgis BaltrusaitisAberrations1957History of Aberrations in Art.
Jurgis BaltrusaitisAnamorphoses1969History of Anamorphoses in Art.
Martin QuigleyMagic Shadows: The Story of the Origin of Motion Pictures1948Motion picture history.
Hayes, R. M., 1947-3-D movies: a history and filmography of stereoscopic cinema,  Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland.1989Cinema, 3D Cinema, stereography.
Hayes, R. M., 1947-Wide Screen Movies: A History and Filmography of Wide Screen Movies1988Wide-screen movies.
Reynaud, Francoise; Tambrun, Françoise; Timby, KimParis in 3D: from stereoscopy to virtual reality 1850-2000,  London: Booth-Clibborn Editions; [Paris]: Paris-Musées.2000Photography and stereography.
Henderson, L.D.The Fourth Dimension and Non-Euclidean Geometry in Modern Art2013Perspective and geometrical transformation(s).
Oetermann, S.The Panorama: A History of a Mass Medium1997History of the panorama.
William V. DunningChanging Images of Pictorial Space: A History of Spatial Illusion in Painting1991Classic history of spatial illusion in painting.
Massimo ScolariOblique Drawing: A History of Anti-Perspective.2012Classic work on anti-perspective.
Kenneth R Adams et al.Inverted Perspective in Art.1972Classic paper on inverted perspective
Table B: List of Publications on Perspective (historical themes)

Perspective Theory

Titles on perspective theory.

G. Ten DoesschatePerspective: Fundamentals, Controversials, History1964Classic text known as the ‘Bible’ of Technical Perspective.
M. H. PirenneOptics, Painting and Photography1970Classic study.
Erwin PanfofskyPerspective as a Symbolic Form1991Classic theory.
Albert Flocon, Andre BarreCurvilinear Perspective1987Primary text on Curvilinear Perspective.
University of Albany.Art and Mathematics Conference: Proceedings 1992. University Albany, New York. Large format publication with many excellent geometrical papers.1992Spatial Perspective(s): Analytic, Descriptive, Projective, Fractal Geometry.
Robert HansenThis curving world: hyperbolic linear perspective,  paper from the Journal of aesthetics and art criticism, 32. 1973.1973Graphical Perspective: alternative methods.
Gibson, J.J.The Information Available in Pictures. Paper.1971Perspective theory.
K.R. AdamsPerspective and Viewpoint. Paper.1972Perspective theory.
Gombrich, E.H.The Visual Image. Paper.1972Perspective theory.
Ward, J.L.The Perception of Pictorial Space in Pictures. Paper.1976Perspective theory.
Adams, W.A.Problems of Pictorial Perception. Paper.1977Perspective theory.
Arnheim, R.Perception of Perspective Pictorial Space from Different Viewing Points. Paper.1977Perspective theory.
Hochberg, JThe Psychophysics of Pictorial Perception. Paper.1962Perspective theory.
S.Y. EdgertonBrunelleschi’s First Perspective Picture. Paper.1973Perspective theory.
Piriene, M.H.The Scientific Basis of Leonardo da Vinci’s Theory of Perspective. Paper.1952Perspective theory.
Carrier D.Perspective as a Convention, On the Views of Nelson, Goodman and Ernst Gombrich. Paper.1980Perspective theory.
Rogers, S., Costall, A.On the Horizon: Picture Perception and Gibson’s Concept of Information. Paper.1983Perspective theory.
James ElkinsRenaissance Perspectives. Paper.1992Perspective theory.
C. WoodThe Perspective Treatise in Ruins. Paper.2003Perspective theory.
Greene, R.Determining the Preferred Viewpoint in Linear Perspective. Paper.1983Perspective theory.
Coppel, G.Old Perspective and New Vision. Paper.1982Perspective theory.
Arnheim, R.Hansen’s Curvilinear Perspective. Paper.1974Perspective theory.
Stanley Brampton ParkerThe Vertical Vanishing Point. Paper.1947Perspective theory.
Ernst GombrichMirror and Map. Paper.1975Perspective theory.
Kirsti AndersonThe History of Liner Perspective from 1435 to the End of the 18th Century Seen in a Mathematical Perspective. Paper.1988Perspective theory.
Ernst GombrichStandards of Truth: The Arrested Image and the Moving Eye. Paper.1980Perspective theory.
Ernst GombrichTopos and Topicality in Renaissance Art. Paper.1975Perspective theory.
Ernst GombrichNature and Art as Needs of the Mind. Paper.1981Perspective theory.
Nicoletta MislerPavel Florensky: Beyond Vision2002Classic work on perspective theory.
Margaret Hagen (editor)The Perception of Pictures – vols 1 & 2.1980Classic – colloquium with various papers.
J.J. GibsonThe Perception of the Visual World1950Classic book on a new theory of perspective: ‘Direct Perception’.
Calvin F. Nodine, Dennis F. FisherPerception and Pictorial Representation 1979Classic study of pictorial perception- a colloquium with various papers.
Arthur Harold SedgwickThe Visible Horizon: A Potential Source of Visual Information for the Perception of Size and Distance.1973Classic paper on horizon calculations for perspective calculations.
Stephen R. EllisSpatial Displays and Spatial Instruments.1987Proceedings of NASA Conference – multiple papers
Paul Ernest DebevecModelling and Rendering Architecture from Photographs.1992Classic Ph.D. thesis.
Markley, R.Virtual Reality and Their Discontents1995Virtual Reality.
Michael HeimThe Metaphysics of Virtual Reality1993Virtual Reality.
Table C: List of Publications on Perspective (theoretical themes)

Reference Publications

Reference titles on perspective.

Call No.AuthorTitleDate(s)Description
1Kim VeltmanLiterature on Perspective: A Select bibliography (1971-1984)1984Shorter Bibliography.
2Kim Veltman, PRCBibliography of Perspective. Contains 15,000 unique titles including primary and secondary literature. Included as volumes 6, 7, 8 of The Encyclopaedia of Perspective.2020Standard world Bibliography of Perspective.
3Kim VeltmanStudies on Leonardo da Vinci 1: Linear Perspective, Visual Dimensions of Science [573 pages]. Volume 2 parts 1 and 2 are in publication at PRC (1,200 pages). 1986Historical study of Leonardo and Perspective.
4Kim Veltman, PRCThe Encyclopedia of Perspective2020Encylopedia with 8 volumes.
5Alan Radley, PRCThe Dictionary of Perspective2023Dictionary with over 200 types of perspective defined.
6Herman SchulingGeschichte Linear-Perspktive im Liche der Forschubg von ca 1879-1970: Bibliography of secondary literature on perspective: History of Linear Perspective in light of research from ca. 1870-1970.1975Excellent history of perspective with Bibliography of secondary literature.
7Vagnetti, L.De naturali et artificiali perspectiva: Annotated bibliography of theoretical sources and research on the history of perspective. Contribution to the formation of the knowledge of a rational idea, in its developments from Euclid to Gaspard Monge (Studies and documents of Architecture, 9-10).1979Excellent and comprehensive bibliography of perspective, later incorporated into Veltman’s bibliography.
8Brigitte Boggild Rumgengivelse: i vesteuropaeisk naturvidenskab of kunst: Spatial representation in Western European natural science and art.1978Includes a bibliography of perspective.
9Marianne MarcussenRumkonstruktioner: Lineare rumkonstruktioner fra egyptian til det 20 drhundred, set i sammenhaeng med udviklingen as matematik, optik og psykologi: Space constructions: Linear space constructions from the Egyptian to the 20th century, seen in connection with developments in mathematics, optics and psychology.1984Excellent overview of perspective history with good images.
10Kristi AndersonThe Geometry of Art2007Historical summary of the mathematical theory of perspective.
Table D: List of Reference Publications on Perspective

Conference Proceedings

Compendia / colloquia / conference titles on perspective.

Call No.AuthorTitleDate(s)Description
1Marisa Dalai EmilianiLa Prospettiva Rinaschimentale: Codificazioni E Trasgressioni: The Renaissance Perspective: Codifications and Transgressions.1980Collection of papers from the first World Perspective Conference.
2Marisa Dalai EmilianiPiero della Francesca tra arte e scienza: Piero della Francesca between Art and Science.1992Collection of papers from Perspective Conference.
3Rocco SinisgalliL’Arte Della Matematica Nella Prosperttiva: The Art of Mathematics in Perspective.2006Collection of papers from Perspective Conference.
4University of BarcelonaD’Art Perspectiva I Espai Figuratiu: Of Perspective Art and Figurative Space.1994Collection of papers from Perspective Conference.
Table E: List of Compendia / Colloquia / Conference Publications on Perspective

Perspective Methods

Titles on perspective methods.

Gwen WhiteBook of Pictorial Perspective1954Graphical Perspective explained.
Gwen WhitePerspective: A Guide for Artists, Architects and Designers1982Superb introduction to Graphical Perspective.
Robert W. GillBasic Perspective1975Excellent diagrams.
Robert W. GillCreative Perspective1975Excellent diagrams.
Douglas CooperDrawing and Perceiving1983Super Images.
John M. HolmesApplied Perspective1948Super visual explanations.
E.W.WatsonHow to Use Creative Perspective1955Nice images.
N.V.Walters, J.BromhamPrinciples of Perspective1970Excellent explanation of perspective principles.
Rex Vicat ColePerspective For Artists1976Artistic perspective explianed.
J.M.ParramonPerspective1982Geometrical perspective explained.
Willy A. BartschiPerspektive1976Fantastic visual explanations of perspective. Large Format.
Otto PatzeltFaszination des Scheins: 500 Jahre Geschichte der Perspecktive:  The fascination of appearances: 500 years of history of perspective.1991Fantastic visual explanations of perspective.
Filippo CamerotaNel Segno Di Masaccio: Invenzione Della Prosperriva: In the Sign of Masaccio: The Invention of Perspective.2001Excellent diagrams. Large format.
Claudius CoulinStep by Step Perspective Drawing1983Artistic perspective.
Eckhart DietzDas Schiefe und Das Rechte Books 1, 2: The Wrong and the Right. Investigations on the nature of Parallel Perspective.Amazing perspective diagrams.
G.A.StoreyTheory and Practice of Perspective1910Classic older work on Technical Perspective.
W. AbbottPerspective1950Classic older work on Technical Perspective.
Kazimierz BartelPerspektywa Malarska: Painting Perspective1958Excellent diagrams and theory.
Fausto VagnettiElementi Di Scienza Del Disegno: Volume Primo: Proizioni Ortagonali Prosperttiva Lineare 1: Elements of the Science of Drawing: Volume One: Orthogonal Projections Linear Perspective.1964Excellent diagrams. In three volumes.
Rodolfo ProfumoTrattato pratico di prospettiva di Ludovico Cardo detto il Cigoli: Practical Treatise on perspective by Ludovico Cardo.1992Wonderful diagrams.
Miloutine BorissavlievitchLes Theories de Architecture1951Interesting theoretical discussion.
Birgit SeidenfubDab wirdt also die Geometrische Perspektiv genandt: So the geometric perspective is used.2006Nice diagrams.
Jose M. ParramonSaper disegnare in prospettiva: Know how to draw in perspective1984Interesting diagrams showing sun angle etc.
Celestino SodduL’Immagine Non Euclidea: The Non-Euclidean Image.1986Superb images.
Avigdor V.G.Book entitled: פרספקטיןוה. Excellent book on perspective written in Hebrew, title translates as ‘Perspective’.1982Superb Images.
Andre VlaanderenPerspectief1942Lovely full-page images.
J.P. ThenotTraite de Perspective Pratique pour Dessiner D’Apres Nature: Practical Perspective Drawing from Nature.1843Super Images.
G.A.T. MiddletonThe Principles of Architectural Perspective1907Wonderful explanation of Graphical Perspective.
L. Brion-GuerryJean Pelerin Viator: Sa Place Dans L’Histoire De La Perspective:  Jean Pelerin Viator: Its place on the History of Perspective.1962Truly marvelous diagrams.
L. PerrensTraite De Perspetive D’Aspect: Aspect Perspective1976Wonderful diagrams.
Renato Angelo, Renato ZiniBi-Tri-Poli-Dimensionality: Nel Disegno in Geometria Descrittiva: Bi-Tri-Poli-Dimensionality in Drawing and in Descriptive Geometry.1975Amazing work with wonderful diagrams.
C. Bonfigli, C.R. BraggioGeometria Descrittiva E Prospettiva con Applicazioni Ed Esercizi: Descriptive Geomatry and Perspective with Applications and Exercises.1976Wonderful diagrams.
Marcia ClarkThe World is Round: Contemporary Panoramas.1987Classic work on panoramic perspectives.
Adrian Dan EliasLa Visione Sferica: The Spherical Vision.1973Classic work on spherical vision.
Kazimierz BartelMalerische Perspektive: Picturesque Perspective.1934Important work on perspective theory, plus excellent diagrams.
Edward EdwardsA Practical Treatise on Perspetive.1805Classic with excellent images.
Henricus HondiusGrondige Onderrichtinge in de Optica ofte Perspective Konste.1622 – 1750Large format very old book. Truly fantastic images.
G.Molle, D. Hennebicq.Zentralperspektive und ihre Konstruction: Central Perspective and its construction.1985Large format.
Rudolf SchmidtPerspektive: Schritt fur Schritt: Perspetive Step by Step.1988Large format.
Peter DoringPerspektivzeichnen: fur Einrichungsberater und Innenacritekten: Perspective drawing for furnishing consultants and interior designers.1989Large Format.
Henk RotgansRuimtelijk Tekenen: Spatial Drawing.1983Large Format.
Renato BaldiProspettiva: Teoria E Applicazione: Perspective Theory and Application.1989Large Format.
Piet LombardeVerschuivingen Binnen Het Planningsdenken over de ruimte: can een perspetvische naar een semiologische benaderingswijze: Shifts in planning thinking about space from a perspetvian to a semiological approach.1982Classic work. Large format spiral bound volume.
Ulrich HammPerspektive1988Contains interesting images. Large Format.
Reiner ThomaeBildkonzeption in der Perspektive:  Image Conception in Perspective1978Superb reference book. Excellent images. Large Format.
Reiner ThomaePerspektive und Axonometrie: Perspective and Axonometry1976Superb reference book. Excellent images. Large Format.
Joseph HarnestDas problem der konstruierten perspektive in der alteutschen malerei: The Problem of Constructed Perspective in Old German Painting.1971Superb. Large format. Softcover, light yellow cover.
University coursesPoints de Vue: Les Cahiers de la Perspective: Viewpoints the Notebooks of Perspective (3 volumes): nos 1-2, 3 and 4. Excellent reference books.1981-1982, 1986, 1987Superb. Three large volumes – softcover – blue, yellow and grey covers.
James E, HissPerspective: An Effective Design Tool1985Super graphics. Large format landscape.
Kevin ForsethGlide Projection1984Excellent diagrams. Large format landscape.
John H. MauldinPerspective Design: Advanced Graphic and Mathematical Approaches.1985Super diagrams. Large format landscape.
Giovanna Maria ZuccottiLa Prospettiva: The Perspective1986Fantastic images. Large format landscape.
Luigi de Simoni, Pietro De SimoniSpazio Prospettico: Perspective Space1976Wonderful. Classic. Large format landscape.
Dante NannoniIl Mondo Delle Proizioni: applicazioni della geometria descrittiva e proiettiva: The World of Projections: applications of descriptive and projective geometry.1978Wonderful. Classic. Large format landscape.
Dante NannoniGeometrua Prospettiva Progetto: Geometry Project Perspetive.1989Wonderful. Classic. Large format landscape.
Tomas Garcia SalgadoPerspectiva Modular: Aplicada Al Deseno Arquiteconico: Modular Perspective applied to Architectural Design.1983Excellent images. Large format landscape.
Tomas Garcia SalgadoIntruccion a la Perspectiva Modular: Introduction to Modular Perspective.1989Excellent images. Small format landscape.
Tomas Garcia SalgadoManual de Perspectiva Modular.1988Excellent images. Large format landscape.
Tomas Garcia SalgadoA Modular Perspective Handbook.1991Excellent images.
Tjomme de VriesHet Tekenen van perspectief: Drawing Perspective.1984Small paperback (6 inch).
Paul ArtariaPerspektivisches Zeichnen: Perspective Drawing.1948Small paperback landscape. Excellent images.
Danielowski PretzschArchetektur Perspektive: Konstrktion Darstellung Architecture Perspective.1982Small hardback landscape. Excellent images.
Thilo HilpertGeometrie Der Architektuzeichnung: Architectural Drawing Geometry1988Medium paperback landscape. Excellent images.
Felix KonigPerspective in Architectural Drawings1979Architectural perspective.
E.A. SeemannDie Geschichte Der Perspektive: The History of Perspective1994History of perspective. Excellent images.
Laura IamurriIl Traite de Persptive A L’Usage Des Artistes Di Edme-Sebastian Jeaurat:  It deals with Perspective for the Use of Artists Di Edme-Sebastian Jeaurat.1993Useful text and images.
Erwin PanofskyCodex Huygens and Leonardo da Vinci’s Art Theory1976Perspective theory.
Meir StienDet Italienske renaessance-teater og perspektive-scenens oprindelse: The origins of the Italian Renaissance theater and perspective stage.1969Theatre / stage perspective.
Joshua ReynoldsTheory and Practice of Perspective1770, ReprintTreatise on perspective.
Comune doi Vinci, 1980La Raccolta leonardesca della Contessa de Behague: The Leonardo Collection of the Countess de Behague.1980Amazing images.
Theadore BestermanCosimo Bartoli: Del Modo di Miesurare: About the way to measure1972, reprintWonderful images.
Filippo CamerotaGiorgio Vasari Il Giovane: Raccolto fatto dal Cav:re Giorgio Vasari: di Varii instrumenti per misurare con la vista: Giorgio Vasari The Younger: Collection made by Cav:re Giorgio Vasari: of Various instruments for measuring with the sight.1996Fantastic images.
Rocco SinisgalliIl Contributo Di Simon Stevin Allo Sviluppo Scientifico Della Prospettiva Artificale: Simon Stevin’s Contribution to the Scientific Development of Artificial Perspective.1978Perspective historical methods.
G. Ten. DoesschatePetrus Camper: Optical Dissertation on Vision1746, reprintClassic book on the history of perspective methods.
Pet. DetleffenPerfpectiva Practica: Practical perspective, or Full Guide brother perspective for Art. All grinders/copper engravers/builders star/ Boldsmiths/ Sculptors/ Stickers/upholsterers and others so that the signs serving art. Described very clearly and neatly and thoroughly provided with nice cover figures. Published by Jeremias Wolff art dealers, printed by Pet. Detleffen, Anno 1710.1710, rfeprintWonderful images.
Heiko Hecht, et al.Looking into Pictures2003Classic articles on the perspective of pictures.
W.H.FullerHow to Draw Perspectives to Scale1952Excellent diagrams.
J. CarrollThe Principles and Practice of Perspective1892Superb images.
Robert PrattPerspective Including the Projection of Shadows and Reflections1901Amazing diagrams.
Table F: List of Titles on Perspective Methods

Perspective Manuals

Manuals on perspective (historical).

ALBERTI, Leon De Pictura1435
FILARETI Libro architettonico, (later referred to as the Trattato…).c.1461–164
P. DELLA FRANCESCSA De Prospectiva Pingendi, critical edition ed. G Nicco-Fasola, Florence, 1942.c.1470
DA VINCINotebooksc. 1500-1518
VIATOR (Pèlerin, Jean)De Artificiali P(er)spectiva, Toul, Petrus Jacobi.1505
DÜRER Albrecht  Unterweisung in der Messung mit Zirkel und Richtscheit, (Measurement by Compass and Ruler)1525
SERLIO, Sebastiano Tutte l’Opera d’Architectura et Prospettiva, Venice.1537–1547
ARETINO, Pietro  Dialogo della Pittura di M. Lodovico Dolce initolato l’Aretino, Venice.1557
COUSIN, JeanLivre de Perspective, Paris, Jean le Royer.1560
BARTOLI, Cosimo Del Modo di Misurare le Distantie, le Superficie, i Corpi, le Piante, le Provincie, le Prospettiue, & Tutte le Altre Cose Terrene, Venice, Francesco Franceschi.1564
BARBARO, Daniele (1568) La Practica della Perspettiva di Monsignor Daniele Barbaro Eletto Patriarca d’Aquileia, Opera Molto Utile a Pittori, a Scultori, & ad Architetti, Venice, Camillo and Rutilio1568
JAMITZER, Wenzel Perspectiva Corporum Regularium, Nurnberg, Gotlicher Hulff.1568
BASSI, Martin Dispareri in Materia d’Architettura, et Perspettiva. Con Pareri di Eccellenti, et Famosi Architetti, chi li Risoluono, Brescia, Francesco and Pietro Maria Marchetti.1572
DU CERCEAU THE ELDER, Jacques Androuet Leçons de Perspective Positive, Paris, Mamert Patisson.1676
VIGNOLA, Jacopo Barozzi da La Due Regole della Prospettiva di M. Iacomo Barozzi da Vignola con i Comentarij del R.P.M. Egnatio Danti, Rome.1583
VILLAFANE, Ioan de Arphe y (1585) De Varia Commensuracion para la Escultura, y Arquitectura, Seville, Andrea Pescioni y Ivan de Leon.1585
SIRIGATTI, LorenzoLa Practica di Prospettiva, Venice, Girolamo Franceschi. (Eng. ed., Issac Ware, 1756)1596
DEL MONTE, Guido UbaldoPerspectivae Libri Sex, Pesaro, Hieronymus Concordia.1600
DE VREIS, Hans Vredeman Perspectiva, id est Celeberrima ars Inspicientis aut Transpicientis Oculorum Aciei, in Pariete, Tabula aut Tela Depicta, The Hague, Leyden.1604-1605
HONDIUS, Hendrik Onderwysinge in de Perspective Conste1622
HONDIUS, Hendrik  Institutio Artis Perspectivae1622
HONDIUS, Hendrik  Instruction en la Science de Perspective16245
HONDIUS, Hendrik Gondige Onderrichtinge in de Optica, oft Perspective Konst, Amsterdam1640
ACCOLTI, Pietro Lo Inganno de Gl’ochi, Prospettiva Practica, Florence, Pietro Cecconcelli.1625
VAULEZARD, I.L. dePerspective Cilindrique et Conique; ou Traicté des Apparences Veuës par le Moyen des Miroirs Cilindrique et Conique, Paris, J. Jacquin.1630
DESARGUES, Girard Example d’une des Manières Universelles, Paris, the author.1636
NICERON, Jean François  La Perspective Curieuse, ou Magie Artificielle des Effets Merveilleux de l’Optique…la Catoprique…la Dioptique, Paris, Pierre Bilain.1638
DUBREUIL, Jean La Perspective Practique…par un Parisien, Religieux de la Compagnie de Iesus, Paris, Melchior and François Langlois.1642
ALÉAUME and MIGON La Perspective Spéculative et Pratique du Sieur Aléaume, ed. by Etienne Migon, Paris.1643
BOSSE, AbrahamManière Universelle de Mr Desargues pour Pratiquer la Perspective par Petit-Pied, comme le Géometral, Paris, the author.1648
LECLERC, Sébastien Practique de la Géométrie sur le Papier et sur le Terrain, Paris, Thomas Jolly.1669
TROILI, Giulio  Paradossi per Pratticare la Prospettiva, senza Saperla, Fiori, per Facilitare l’Intelligenza, Frutti, per non Operare alla Cieca, Bologna, heirs of Peri.1672
POZZO, Andrea Perspectiva Pictorum et Architectorum Andreae Pozzo Putei e Societate Jesu’, Rome, Joannis Komarek Bohemi.1693 – 1700
LAMY, Bernard Traité de Perspective, ou sont Contenus les Fondamens de al Peinture, Paris, Anisson.1701
BIBIENA, Ferdinando Galli (1711) L’architettura Civile Preparate su la Geometria, e Ridotta alle Prospettive, Parma, P. Monti.1711
TAYLOR, Brook (1715) Linear Perspective: or, a New Method of Representing justly All Manner of Objects as They Appear to the Eye in all Situations, London, R. Knaplock.1715
Gravesande, William-James ‘An Essay on Perspective’, London, 17241724
Courtonne, JeanTraité de la Perspective Practique, avec des Remarques sur l’Architecture, suivis de quelques Edifices Considérables mis en Perspective, and de l’Invention de l’Auteur’, Paris, Jacques Vincent.1725
Halfpenny, William Perspective Made Easy: Or, A New Method For Practical Perspective1731
Peele, JThe Method of Learning to Draw in Perspective Made Easy and Fully Explained’.1732
Bibiena, G.G.‘Architetture e Prospettive’. (Facs.ed., Dover, New York, 1964)1740
Jeaurat, Edme-Sébastien Dr. Brook Taylor’s Method of Perspective Made Easy in both Theory and Practice, Ipswich.1754
Lambert, Johann Heinrich La Perspective Affranchie de l’embaras du Plan Géometral’, Zurich, Heidegger1759
Moxon, JosephPractical perspective; or Perspective made easie. Teaching by the opticks, how to delineate all bodies, buildings, or landskips, &c.1760
Fournier, DanielA Treatise on the Theory of Perspective1761
Le Geay, Jean-LaurentPopularised aerial (bird’s eye) perspectives1760s
Emerson, WilliamThe Elements of Optics. In Four Books1768
Emerson, WilliamArt of Drawing in Perspective: wherein the Doctrine of Perspective is Clearly and Concisely Treated of,…Illustrated with a variety of copper-plate figures.1769
Malton, Thomas A Compleat Treatise on Perspective, in Theory and Practice; on the Principles of Dr. Brook Taylor, Made Clear by Various Moveable Schemes, and Diagrams… In Four Books. Embellished with an Elegant Frontispiece and Forty-Eight Plates. London.1775
Ferguson, James The Art of Drawing in Perspective made easy for those who have no previous knowledge of the Mathematics.1775
Chambers, A.The Practice of Perspective, London.1781
Dubreuil, JeanBowle’s Practice of Perspective: or an easy method of representing objects according to the rules of art…, sixth ed., 150 engraved plates, Carrington Bowles.1782
Monge, Gaspard Géométrie Descriptive, Paris, Baudouin.1798
Robson, W.Grammigraphia; or the Grammar of Drawing, 6 pages of folding flap diagrams, London, the author.1799
Malton, James The Young Painter’s Maulstick; Being a Practical Treatise on Perspective, containing Rules and Principles for Delineation of planes… Founded on the Clear Mechanical Process of Vignola and Sirigatti, 71pp, 23 engvd plates (21 aquatints, 2 with movable flaps), London: for the author by Carpenter & Co.1800
Brown, Richard The Principles of Practical Perspective; or Scenographic Projection: containing Universal Rules for Delineating Designs on Various Surfaces, taking Views from Nature, by the most Simple and Expedious Methods. To which are added, Rules for Shadowing and the Elements of Painting. The Whole Treated in a Manner Calculated to render the Science of Perspective and the Art of Drawing Easy of Attainment to Every Capacity, 51 plates, London, Samuel Leigh.1815
Hayter, CharlesAn Introduction to Perspective, Drawing and Painting… carefully adapted for the instruction of females, fourth edition, 300pp and 20 plates, Kingsbury, Parbury and Allen.1825
Dollond, George The Camera Lucida. An Instrument for Drawing in True Perspective, and for Copying, Reducing, or Enlarging other Drawings, London, 1830.1830
Vergnaud, A.D. Manuel de Perspective, du Dessinateur et du Peintre, fourth edition, front plate and 8 folding plates, Paris, Librairie Encyclopedique de Roret. French text.1835
Williams, Butler A Manual for Teaching Model-Drawing from Solid Forms, the Models Founded on those of M. Dupuis, Combined with a Popular View of Perspective, John W. Parker, London.1843
Duffin, Felix Perspective, a Treatise intended with or without models as a complete guide for self instruction, 10 lithograph plates, Ackerman and Co.1852
Herdman, William GawinA Treatise on the Curvilinear Perspective of Nature: and its Applicability to Art, 118pp., 27 folding plates, John Weale.1853
Burchett, R.Linear Perspective for the Use of Schools of Art, 102pp, 25 folding plates, Chapman and Hall, London.1856
Bradley, ThomasElements of Geometrical Drawing; Practical Geometry, Plane and Solid, inlcuding both Orthographic and Perspective Projection, 60 plates, 2 vols., Chapman and Hall.1885
Penley, AaronThe Elements of Perspective: Illustrated by Numerous Examples and Diagrams, second ed., 11 plates, 60pp, Windsor and Newton, London.1851
Vaughan, Joseph Moffatt’s Perspective, for Second Grade Art Students, 7 figures, 41 plates, 104pp, Moffatt & Paige, London.1890
Ferguson, F.O.Architectural Perspective, first ed., 41pp text, 38 fold out diagrams.1891
Ruskin, John (1907) The Elements of Drawing and the Elements of Perspective.1907
Reile, Adolf Die Neue Perspektive des Architekten, 75pp, 32+1 plates, Julius Hoffmann, Stuttgart.?
Table G: List of Manuals on Perspective (historical)

Perspective Treatises – larger format

Treatises and works on/about perspective treatises.

Giuseppe Galli BibienaArchitectural And Perspective Designs1740; reprint: 1964,Large format paperback.
Andrea PozzoArchitectural Perspective in Architecture1693, reprint:1989Large format paperback.
Pierre DescarguesTraites de Perspective: Perspective Treatisesreprint: 1976Large format paperback. Landscape.  Survey of visual plates from multiple publications.
Jan Vredeman de VriesPerspectiveReprint.Medium format. Landscape. 
Walter L. StraussThe Human Figure by Albrecht Durer1972Large Format softcover.
J.B. deC. M. Saunders, Charles D. O’MalleyThe Illustrations from the works of Andreas Vesalius1950Large Format softcover.
Roseline BacouPiranesi1975Large Format hardcover. Landscape.
Vittorio De Feo, Valentino MartinelliAndrea Pozzo1975Large format hardcover.
Masodik KiadasPetri Lossai: Notationes et Delineationes1498: copyLarge format hardcover.
Herschel LevitViews of Rome Then and Now: Ecthings by Giovanni Battista Piranesi1976Large format hardcover.
Romolo Augusto StaccioliAncient Rome: Monuments past and present2000Excellent, amazing views of past Rome buildings with modern plastic overlays!
Verlag Walter UhlDurer: Proportionslehre; Durer: Unterweisung der Messung: Durer: Proportion Theory; Durer: Instruction of Measurment (2 volumes)1972Medium format hardcover volumes.
Gaspare De FioreI Sei libri della prosperttiva di Guidobablo dei marchesi Del Monte dal latino tradotti interetati e commentati da Rocco Sinsigalli: The six books of Guidobablo’s prosperity of the Marquises Del Monte from the Latin translated with interest and commented by Rocco Sinsigalli.1984Super large format, hardcover, red cover.
Jacopo BarozziRegole Della Prosperttiva Prattica: Rules of the Practical Perspective1743, reprintedLarge format, hardcover, red cover.
Daniele BarbaroLa Pratica Della Perspettiva: The Practice of Perspective 1569, reprintLarge format, hardcover, red cover.
Jean CousinLivre De Perspective: Perspective Book1560, reprintLarge format, hardcover, beige cover.
Paolo Dal Pozzo Toscanelli; Della Prospettiva: A Cura Di Alessandro Parraonchi: Of the Perspective.1991Large format, hardcover, brown cover.
Theodire BestermanThe Printed Sources of Western Art: Pietro Accolti: Lo Inganno de gl’occhi: Pietro Accolti: The deception of the eyes.1625, reprint Large format, softcover, multi-patterned blue cover pattern.
Felix SchmeidlerJoannis Regiomontani: Opera Collectanea: 1553, reprint.Very large format hardcover. Brown cover.
Ferdinando Galli Da BibienaL-Archiettura Civile: Ferdinando Galli Da Bibiena1971Very large format hardcover. Deep red cover. Historical Survey.
A. E. SantanielloThe Book of Architecture by Sebastiano Serlio1611, reprintVery large format hardcover. Green cover.
Rocco SinisgalliBorromini A Quattro Dimensioni: Four DImensional Borromni.1981Large format softcover landscape. Superb images etc.
Kando BartoliLe Rete Magica Di Filippo Brunelleschi: The Magic Network by Filippo Brunelleschi.1977Large format hardcover.
Mario SalmiLa Pittura di Piero Della Francesca: The Painting of Piero Della Francesca.1979Very large format hardcover.
Joseph Rykwert and Anne EngelLeon Battista Alberti1994Large format softcover.
Carlo L. RagghiantiFilippo Brunelleschi1977Large format hardcover.
David C. Lindberg (instoduction)Opticae Thesaurus.1972, ReprintLarge format hardcover, red cover.
Table H: List of Perspective Treatises – larger format (and related titles)

Perspective Treatises – smaller format

Treatises and works on/about perspective treatises.

Antonio ManettiThe Life of Brunalleschi.1970Biography of Brunalleschi.
Stefano BorasoBrunelleschi 1420.1999Biography of Brunalleschi.
Frank D. Prager, Gustima ScagliaBrunelleschi: Studies of His Technology and Inventions.1970Biography of Brunalleschi.
Leon Battista AlbertiOn Painting.Reprint 1956Classic reprint.
Rocco Sinisgalli etal, Including Kim VeltmanThe New De Pictura of Leon Battista Alberti.2006Reprint with new translation / analysis.
Margaret Daly DavisPiero Della Francesca’s Matehmatical Treatises1977Classic analysis.
G. Nicco FasolaDe Prospectiva Pingendi: volumes 1, 21974Classic Edition.
G. Nicco FasolaDe Prospectiva Pingendi.1984New Edition of above book
Angeli JanhsenPerspektivregeln und Bildgestaltung bei Piero Della Francesca: Perspective rules and image design by Piero Della Francesca.1990Perspective history.
Andre SikojevPavel Florenskij: Die umgekehrte Perspektive: text zur Kunst: Pavel Florenskij: The reverse perspective: text on art.1989Classic work on perspective theory.
Nicolatta MislerPavel Florenskij: La prospettiva rovesciata e altri scritti: Pavel Florensky: Inverted perspective and other writings.1983Classic work on perspective theory.
Erwin PanofskyThe Life and Art of Albrecht Durer1955Biography of Durer.
Eberhard SchroderDurer Kunst und Geometrie: Durer Art and Geometry1980Work of Durer.
Jean-Henri LambertEssai sur la perspective: Perspective Essay1752, reprintWork of Lambert.
Roger LaurentLa Place de J.H.Lambert dans l’historie de la perspective: The place of J.H.Lambert in the history of perspective.1987Work of Lambert.
Kirsti AndersonBrook Taylor’s Work on Linear Perspective1992Work of Brook Taylor.
J.V.Field and J.J.GreyThe Geometrical Work of Girard Desargues1987Work of Desargues.
Rocco SinisgalliLa Prospettiva Di Federico Commandino: Federico Commandino’s Perspective1993Work of Commandino.
Table I: List of Perspective Treatises – smaller format (and related titles)

-- < LATEST NEWS > --

This page is under construction, and is only at an early stage of development.

We seek to provide the very best educational materials for students of perspective at all levels. This page provides a curated list of perspective resources, and we shall build it out further in the future. In particular we will further define the list by student age/level; provide more defined topic lists, plus add in reviews of important titles.

We shall publish pdf versions of classic titles (where copyright allows).
In the meantime, feel free to contact us with any questions.

We appreciate your patience.

Alan Radley -- 16th January 2023 --

Dr Alan Radley FRSA | Scientific Director

Perspective Research Centre