A monograph is a specialist writing on a particular subject concerned with a single species, genus, or class of things. It is a complete account of one specialised topic, nothing being neglected which is necessary for a perfect knowledge of it, and is concerned with investigating the principles of the subject and its conclusions.

It is assumed that the readership of a monograph has not only specialised or sophisticated knowledge, but a professional interest in the subject matter.

Perspective Monographs by Kim Veltman

Kim Veltman produced the first monographs on perspective; running to over 4000 pages, and Kim wrote these wonderful works after a lifetime of diligent study. These books represent an incredible resource for present and future generations of perspective scholars. We shall publish these as digital books on this website for free and open access as soon as possible.

Kim’s monographs on perspective concern Leonardo da Vinci and perspective; and the Sources and Literature of Perspective. 

  1. Studies on Leonardo da Vinci 1: Linear Perspective, Visual Dimensions of Science and Art (1986, 573 pages).
  2. Studies on Leonardo da Vinci 2: Continuity and Discovery in Optics and Astronomy parts 1 and 2 (8 volumes of unpublished manuscripts, 1200 pages).
  3. The Sources of Perspective (1994-2020, 600 pages – published by the PRC as the Encyclopaedia of Perspective (volumes 1, 2)
  4. The Literature of Perspective (1994-2020, 600 pages – published by the PRC as the Encyclopaedia of Perspective (volumes 3, 4)
  5. The Bibliography of Perspective (1994-2020, 15,000 titles) – published by the PRC as the Encyclopaedia of Perspective (volumes 6, 7, 8)

The PRC owns the copyright on all of these works, and we shall scan and digitise the original book for Studies on Leonardo da Vinci 1, and place it on the PRC website.

The PRC owns original copies of the 8 volumes of Kim’s manuscript(s) named Studies on Leonardo da Vinci 2: Continuity and Discovery in Optics and Astronomy parts 1 and 2. Soon we shall scan and provide digital copies of these same manuscripts on the PRC website (complete with thousands of figures/plates including countless unique diagrams and other one-of-a-kind images). Later we shall publish these volumes as physical books.

The above monographs provide modern-day scholars of perspective with a comprehensive historical overview of perspective methods, theories, and applications, plus gives an exhaustive bibliography of the primary and secondary literature. However, the aforementioned volumes do not examine in detail the main technical features of Optical Perspective or provide an overarching theoretical framework for the subject as a whole. 

PRC Monograph on Technical Perspective

In a strange quirk of fate, no book exists on the theoretical foundations of Technical Perspective; specifically to define, analyse, and unify all of the principles, forms, methods, and applications of Optical Perspective.

Henceforth, we are gathering everything known on this subject into a comprehensive Monograph on Technical Perspective, tentatively entitled: ‘The Art and Science of Optical Perspective’. Explored therein are the foundations of perspective in terms of elementary theory, and identified are the primary classes and the numerous sub-categories in this respect. We wish to minimise the number of primitive notions, axioms, principles, and inference rules that relate to perspective phenomena; while unifying all known theories that comprise the entire subject matter of perspective (as it exists today). 

Desired are solutions to the paradoxes that have plagued perspective theories in the 20th and 21st centuries, including the debate(s) over the nature of human vision and whether perspective is an objective or subjective method. While it may only be feasible to solve some such problems in this work, we aim to comprehensively identify and describe the nature and implications of said issues. 

We wish to spark interest in Optical Perspective, advance the subject by popularising it and showcase the powers and capacities of related visual, imaging, and spatial concepts. Explained is how advances in the theories/methods of Optical Perspective drive artistic, scientific, and technical progress to a great degree.

Scope of Work

The ‘Art and Science of Optical Perspective’ represents the central core of knowledge on Visual, Optical, and Technical Perspective for all practical purposes. In this respect, we exclude arcane mathematical proofs and broad philosophical discussions from our analysis, limiting our exposition to topics that directly impact real-world perspective phenomena, methods, forms, and applications.

We define perspective as the formation of a Visual Image—or a representational pattern—of a visible state of affairs present in a spatial reality (e.g., natural, illusive, imagined space, etc.). But there are many forms of perspective that fit this broad definition, therefore in this monograph we shall limit our exposition to Optical Perspective. Whereby Optical Perspective encompasses all forms of perspective that use, or purport to use, light, or electromagnetic radiation, to analyse/represent a spatial scene; including all wavelength ranges from gamma rays, x-rays, visual spectrum, microwaves, radio, etc.

According to this definition, we include all forms of Visual, Optical, and Technical Perspective, specifically the Natural, Mathematical, Graphical, Instrument, Forced and Media Perspective categories; plus certain categories of Non-Technical Perspective. Excluded are other forms of Technical Perspective, such as Contact Perspective and Symbolic Perspective (ref. literal, metaphorical forms); plus purely algebraic forms of Mathematical Perspective; that is, mathematical images composed of letters and symbols that do not relate to visual images.

All types of Visual, Optical and Technical Perspective have strong links to Mathematical Perspective, and most are subject to the vagaries of human vision/perception. Indeed perspective raises fundamental questions about the nature and limits of human perception/understanding of reality, whereby related problems have been puzzled over for 2000 years—and are still debated today. Henceforth, we shall examine human vision and perception, including physical/physiological/psychological optics.

Optical Perspective

Optical Perspective is concerned with capturing, measuring, or representing realistic views/images of dimensional space. Once again, Optical Perspective encompasses all forms of perspective that use, or purport to use, light, or electromagnetic radiation, to analyse/represent a spatial scene; including all wavelength ranges from gamma rays, x-rays, visual, microwaves, radio, etc.

Some forms of Optical Perspective employ artificial/simulated ‘light-rays’ that lie beyond the bounds of ordinary physics. Said techniques can sometimes operate on an impossibly vast or tiny visual scale; or produce images that pass straight through solid objects, etc. However, using such techniques does not necessarily make the resultant visual images any less real or accurate (ref. heavenly, sub-atomic and medical optics, Virtual Reality, etc). 

Noteworthy is that we have adopted the term Optical or Technical Perspective for a broader range of meanings than purely ‘optical’ phenomena such as photography (for example). Included in that term is any systematic optical related process that produces Visual Images (of any type) that concern spatial reality. Note that excluded from our analysis are several other kinds of Visual Perspective, including Sonar (sound ‘imagery’), Magnetic, Mechanical, Gravitational Perspective(s), etc.

As we shall learn, there are many different categories of Optical Perspective. Still, all involve spatial imaging principles that reflect scene geometry aspects with varying degrees of visual realism or accuracy.

Media Perspective

Optical Perspective is simultaneously both an old and new subject discipline. 

Optical Perspective has established and well-known classes/forms such as Graphical and Linear Perspective combined with proven theory/methods, however many new forms of perspective are currently in development and which result from inventions in the fields of digital technologies and New Media.

Whereby Media Perspective refers to the particular imaging capabilities and visual transformations a New Media system provides. Said system typically consists of multiple networked instances of other instrument/media perspectives. Examples of technologies that fit under the umbrella of Media Perspectives include: Internet and Web-based information systems, networked cameras and telescopes, Internet Of Things (IOT) frameworks, remote-sensing instruments (for example, satellites), digital television systems, smartphones, and networked devices, satellite imaging systems, GPS, plus Virtual Reality (VR), Augmented Reality (AR), Mixed Reality (MR), Extended Reality (XR), and so-called Multiverse systems, etc. 

In the case of a highly developed Media Perspective, images/views from one or more of the other categories of perspective, may be connected/linked together and then viewed, surveyed, modelled, ordered, constructed, matched, mixed, explored, cross-matched, etc. A key part of the exposition within the Monograph on Technical Perspective, is to identify, define, and analyse the all of the facets, features, principles, and implications of Media Perspective and the myriad of interrelations with more traditional forms of Optical Perspective.

Plan of Work

We shall publish the Monograph on Technical Perspective in separate fascicles:

Main topics:

  • Volume 1 – Basic Principles, Methods, Types, and Forms of Perspective
  • Volume 2 – Natural Perspective
  • Volume 3 – Mathematical Perspective
  • Volume 4 – Graphical Perspective
  • Volume 5 – Instrument Perspective
  • Volume 6 – Forced Perspective and Illusion
  • Volume 7 – Media Perspective
  • Volume 8 – A Theory of Universal Perspective


  • Appendix Volume A: The Dictionary of Perspective
  • Appendix Volume B: The Gallery of Perspective
  • Appendix Volume C: The Museum of Perspective

Producing the Monograph on Technical Perspective is an ambitious undertaking that will take some time, and probably several published volumes, to complete. While we await publication of the first volume in this series, interested parties are referred to the developing theory and text as detailed on the present website; plus we give an outline of the contents of planned volumes below.

We are working on sections of all these volumes simultaneously, but we intend to complete and publish volumes in numerical order. Note that a separate appendix volume entitled “The Dictionary of Perspective” will be published in advance of the other volumes; and because we adjudge that the definitions it contains are essential to understanding the content of all the other volumes.

We are working hard to complete the Monograph on Perspective, but it is a significant undertaking, and we shall not finish the project and publish all volumes for some considerable period of time.